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Dispersal processes have important effects on plant distribution and abundance. Although adaptations to long range dispersal telechory are by no means rare in desert plants, many desert plant species do not possess any features to promote dispersal atelechory , while others have structures that hamper dispersal antitelechory. The high frequency with which atelechorous and antitelechorous mechanisms are present in plants inhabiting arid areas indicates the importance of these adaptations.

Among the benefits derived from these adaptations are the spreading of germination over time, the provision of suitable conditions for germination and subsequent seedling establishment, and the maintenance of a reservoir of available seeds seed bank.

Biology of Plants: Plant Adaptations

This book describes the ways and means - anatomical, morphological and ecological - by which dispersal in desert plants has evolved to ensure the survival of these species in their harsh and unpredictable environment. Restriction of Dispersal Due to Anchorage Mechanisms. It is even possible for some animals, such as kangaroo rats Dipodomys sp.

They store the seeds in their burrows, where the seeds absorb moisture from the air; the animals then receive that moisture when they eat the seeds.

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Kangaroo rats are even able to manufacture water as a byproduct of chemical processes involved in their digestion of seeds, and they seal their burrows to recycle the moisture released during breathing. These creatures are so efficient in their use and conservation of water that even in captivity they will not drink water when offered it. The desert bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis is an example of a Mojave animal that is somewhat reliant on springs, rivers, puddles, and other outside sources of water, since it receives limited moisture from the food it eats and has developed no special accommodations in this regard.

This is especially true in winter when vegetation is dormant and dry. Digital-Desert : Mojave Desert. Overview of the Mojave Animal Adaptations Desert animals are more susceptible to temperature extremes than are desert plants.

Lizards may seek shelter in cool, moist burrows Owls will sleep during the day Large ears help to keep the jackrabbit cool Bighorn sheep are limited by distances to water resources, however will drink enough for several days within a short period of time Chuckwalla rarely, if ever drink free-standing water and recieve moisture from the wildflower blossoms they eat.

Abraxas Engineering privacy. All rights reserved. Birds and mammals are the most important seed dispersers, but a wide variety of other animals, including turtles, fish, and insects e. The extinction of these large frugivores from poaching and habitat loss may have negative effects on the tree populations that depend on them for seed dispersal and reduce genetic diversity. Seed dispersal by ants myrmecochory is a dispersal mechanism of many shrubs of the southern hemisphere or understorey herbs of the northern hemisphere.

Ants carry such seeds into their colonies, feed the elaiosome to their larvae and discard the otherwise intact seed in an underground chamber. Seed predators, which include many rodents such as squirrels and some birds such as jays may also disperse seeds by hoarding the seeds in hidden caches.

In addition, rodents may also disperse seeds via seed spitting due to the presence of secondary metabolites in ripe fruits. For example, dung beetles are known to disperse seeds from clumps of feces in the process of collecting dung to feed their larvae. Other types of zoochory are chiropterochory by bats , malacochory by molluscs, mainly terrestrial snails , ornithochory by birds and saurochory by non-bird sauropsids. Zoochory can occur in more than one phase, for example through diploendozoochory , where a primary disperser an animal that ate a seed along with the seeds it is carrying is eaten by a predator that then carries the seed further before depositing it.

Dispersal by humans anthropochory used to be seen as a form of dispersal by animals. Its most widespread and intense cases account for the planting of much of the land area on the planet, through agriculture. In this case, human societies form a long term relationship with plant species, and create conditions for their growth. Recent research points out that human dispersers differ from animal dispersers by having a much higher mobility, based on the technical means of human transport. On the other hand, dispersal by humans may act on large geographical scales and lead to the spread of invasive species.

Humans may disperse seeds by many various means and some surprisingly high distances have been repeatedly measured. Deliberate seed dispersal also occurs as seed bombing. This has risks, as unsuitable provenance may introduce genetically unsuitable plants to new environments.

Seed dispersal has many consequences for the ecology and evolution of plants. Dispersal is necessary for species migrations, and in recent times dispersal ability is an important factor in whether or not a species transported to a new habitat by humans will become an invasive species. For example, myrmecochory increased the rate of diversification more than twofold in plant groups in which it has evolved because myrmecochorous lineages contain more than twice as many species as their non-myrmecochorous sister groups. In addition, the speed and direction of wind are highly influential in the dispersal process and in turn the deposition patterns of floating seeds in the stagnant water bodies.

Plant Adaptations

The transportation of seeds is led by the wind direction. This effects colonization situated on the banks of a river or to wetlands adjacent to streams relative to the distinct wind directions.

The wind dispersal process can also affect connections between water bodies. Essentially, wind plays a larger role in the dispersal of waterborne seeds in a short period of time, days and seasons, but the ecological process allows the process to become balanced throughout a time period of several years.

Environmental Constraints to the Geographic Expansion of Plant and Animal Species

The time period of which the dispersal occurs is essential when considering the consequences of wind on the ecological process. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant. Play media. Biological dispersal Biantitropical distribution Diplochory Disturbance ecology Dormancy — "dispersal in time" Elaiosome Gene flow Habitat fragmentation Island hopping Landscape ecology Metapopulation Myrmecochory Oceanic dispersal Population ecology Seed dispersal syndrome. Bibcode : Natur. Bibcode : PNAS Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics.

Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. October Journal of Ecology. May The American Naturalist.


Trends in Ecology and Evolution. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing. Conservation Biology. Bibcode : Sci African Zoology. Botanica Helvetica. Plant Ecology. Retrieved Modern Biology. United States: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.